PowerShell provides many ways to work with files and with other sorts of structured data it treats as files. Typically as shown before we can use the same commands as in cmd.exe but they parameters change also we can call many using he names of commands found in Unix type systems, these are aliases for PowerShell cmdlets so as to make the transition to PowerShell easier for administrators. Let have a look at the common commands used to manage files and their aliases. Do not worry to much on the manipulation commands used since I will cover those later in other blog posts but do take a look at what those aliases map to:

PS C:\> Get-Alias | where {$_.definition -match "path|item|content|location"} | Group-Object definition

Count Name                      Group
----- ----                      -----
    1 Add-Content               {ac}
    3 Get-Content               {cat, gc, type}
    3 Set-Location              {cd, chdir, sl}
    1 Clear-Content             {clc}
    1 Clear-Item                {cli}
    1 Clear-ItemProperty        {clp}
    3 Copy-Item                 {copy, cp, cpi}
    1 Copy-ItemProperty         {cpp}
    1 Convert-Path              {cvpa}
    6 Remove-Item               {del, erase, rd, ri...}
    3 Get-ChildItem             {dir, gci, ls}
    1 Get-Item                  {gi}
    2 Get-Location              {gl, pwd}
    1 Get-ItemProperty          {gp}
    1 Invoke-Item               {ii}
    3 Move-Item                 {mi, move, mv}
    1 Move-ItemProperty         {mp}
    1 New-Item                  {ni}
    1 Pop-Location              {popd}
    1 Push-Location             {pushd}
    2 Rename-Item               {ren, rni}
    1 Rename-ItemProperty       {rnp}
    1 Remove-ItemProperty       {rp}
    1 Resolve-Path              {rvpa}
    1 Set-Content               {sc}
    1 Set-Item                  {si}
    1 Set-ItemProperty          {sp}

As we can see in addition to the commands that we know from Unix type systems and those we use from cmd.exe we can find that PowerShell provides even more aliases for those cmdlets and for other actions we will discuss we will see that it has it’s own aliases and cmdlets.

PSDrives

Lets start with the concept that PowerShell treats files and folders as Items, the reason for this is that PowerShell treats other structure data as a file systems and calls the mappings to them PSDrives. To list the PSDrives on our current system we use the cmdlet Get-PSDive:

PS C:\> Get-PSDrive | ft -AutoSize

Name     Used (GB) Free (GB) Provider    Root               CurrentLocation
----     --------- --------- --------    ----               ---------------
Alias                        Alias
C            60.13    535.94 FileSystem  C:\
cert                         Certificate \
D           764.70    166.81 FileSystem  D:\
E           617.89    313.62 FileSystem  E:\
Env                          Environment
F                            FileSystem  F:\
Function                     Function
G                            FileSystem  G:\
H                            FileSystem  H:\
HKCU                         Registry    HKEY_CURRENT_USER
HKLM                         Registry    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE
I                            FileSystem  I:\
J                            FileSystem  J:\
Variable                     Variable
WSMan                        WSMan

As we can see in addition to the normal drives we have on the system we have others drives we can navigate to:

  • Alias – Represent all aliases valid for the current PowerShell Session.
  • Cert – Certificate store for the user represented in Current Location.
  • Env – All environment variables for the current PowerShell Session.
  • Function – All functions available for the current PowerShell Session.
  • HKLM – Registry HKey Local Machine Registry Hive.
  • HKCU – Registry HKey Current User Hive for the user the PowerShell session is running as.
  • WSMan – WinRM (Windows Remote Management) configuration and credentials.

Each of these PowerShell Drives are dependent on what is called PowerShell Providers that allow the access to the structured information. These can be listed with the Get-PSProvider cmndlet:

PS C:\> Get-PSProvider | ft -AutoSize

Name        Capabilities                Drives
----        ------------                ------
WSMan       Credentials                 {WSMan}
Alias       ShouldProcess               {Alias}
Environment ShouldProcess               {Env}
FileSystem  Filter, ShouldProcess       {C, D, E, F...}
Function    ShouldProcess               {Function}
Registry    ShouldProcess, Transactions {HKLM, HKCU}
Variable    ShouldProcess               {Variable}
Certificate ShouldProcess               {cert}

As we can see there are provider for other types other than FileSystem, this can me extended depending on PowerShell modules loaded and installed on a system for example on Windows 7 systems with the Remote Administration Tools or Windows 2008 R2 Domain Controller the can have access to an Active Directory provider, machines with the VMware PowerCLI installed will have access to providers for VMware Datastore and Virtual Infrastructures:

PowerCLI C:\> Get-PSProvider

Name                 Capabilities                  Drives
----                 ------------                  ------
WSMan                Credentials                   {WSMan}
Alias                ShouldProcess                 {Alias}
Environment          ShouldProcess                 {Env}
FileSystem           Filter, ShouldProcess         {C, A, D}
Function             ShouldProcess                 {Function}
Registry             ShouldProcess, Transactions   {HKLM, HKCU}
Variable             ShouldProcess                 {Variable}
Certificate          ShouldProcess                 {cert}
VimDatastore         ShouldProcess                 {vmstores, vmstore}
VimInventory         Filter                        {vis, vi}

Using one of this providers is quite simple, for it we use the New-PSDrive cmdlet, options for the cmdlet may change depending on the provider used so if using any external provide do look at the documentation provided by the company that made the provider. Each provider has different capabilities and this capabilities dictate what can be done on the data that is accessed, for example:

  • ShouldProcess – Cmdlets that support the -Confirm and -WhatIf parameter can be used against the PSDrive.
  • Credentials – Cmdlets that use the -Credential parameter can be used against the PSDrive
  • Transactions – Cmdlets can me executed in a transactional fashion and use the parameter -UseTransaction against the PSDrive.
  • Filter – Cmdlets can use wildcard filtering for enumerating objects using the -Filter parameter against the PSDrive.

Lets map a drive:

PS C:\Users\carlos> New-PSDrive -Name isostore -Root \\192.168.1.2\isostore -PSProvider filesystem

Name           Used (GB)     Free (GB) Provider      Root                      CurrentLocation
----           ---------     --------- --------      ----                      ---------------
isostore                               FileSystem    \\192.168.1.2\isostore

PS C:\Users\carlos> ls isostore:


    Directory: \\192.168.1.2\isostore


Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name
----                -------------     ------ ----
da---         1/26/2012  12:49 PM            Oracle
da---         3/27/2012   1:11 PM            Microsoft
da---         3/15/2012   7:34 PM            Linux
da---        12/30/2011   3:49 PM            FreeBSD
da---         3/15/2012   7:33 PM            Solaris
d----         12/2/2011  11:29 AM            unlock-all-v102
da---         3/15/2012   7:34 PM            VMWare
da---         2/27/2012   8:04 AM            Apple
-a---         2/24/2012   9:51 PM 3589316608 8250.0.WINMAIN_WIN8BETA.120217-1520_X64FRE_SERVER_EN-US-HB1_SSS_X64FRE_EN-
                                             US_DV5.ISO
-a---          1/4/2012   2:06 PM        403 shutdown_vms.rb
-a---         4/13/2011   3:17 AM  531705856 openfileresa-2.99.1-x86_64-disc1.iso
-a---         10/8/2007   4:06 PM  661127168 win2k3entsp2.iso
-a---        12/30/2011   7:32 PM  115838976 pfSense.iso
-a---          1/2/2012  11:16 PM  533204992 XenServer-6.0.0-install-cd.iso
-a---          1/4/2012   1:50 PM        177 shtdown.sh
-a---          5/4/2011   5:42 PM  369717248 VMware-VMvisor-Installer-4.0.0.Update01-208167.x86_64.iso

One thing that we need to keep in mind is that the drives we create are only present in the current PowerShell Session only and only can be accessed by the session so Windows Explorer and other tools on windows will not have access to the drive. Also as we can see in the example we can use a longer name for the drive than the letters we are used to use on Windows when mapping drives.

Working with Items

Listing Items

Lets look first at listing the contents of the current working folder for this we will use the Get-ChildItem cmdlet:

PS C:\> Get-ChildItem


    Directory: C:\


Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name
----                -------------     ------ ----
d----         7/13/2009  11:20 PM            PerfLogs
d-r--          4/5/2012  10:27 PM            Program Files
d-r--          4/8/2012   6:39 PM            Program Files (x86)
d----          4/5/2012   7:42 PM            Python27
d----          4/5/2012   7:41 PM            Python32
d----          4/5/2012   7:38 PM            Ruby193
d----          4/6/2012  12:27 PM            SysinternalsSuite
d-r--          4/5/2012  10:54 PM            Users
d----          4/8/2012  11:14 AM            Windows
-a---          4/5/2012  10:32 PM       1024 .rnd

As we can see we get a listing of the files and folders and basic information about them. Each item is in fact a .Net object of System.IO.FileInfo type that we can manipulate. Lets try searching in a given path for a file that matches a wild card, as we saw before when talink about PSProviders the FileSystem provider allows for filtering. Lets search for any file that starts with telnet in my install of Ruby 1.9.3:

PS C:\> Get-ChildItem -Path .\Ruby193 -Recurse -Filter telnet*


    Directory: C:\Ruby193\lib\ruby\1.9.1\net


Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name
----                -------------     ------ ----
-a---         5/18/2011   9:07 PM      32598 telnet.rb

Creating Files and Folders

Lets crate a directory and file for us to use to keep exploring the cmdlets, lets start by using the New-Item cmdlet to create a folder called testfolder:

PS C:\> New-Item -Path . -Name testfolder -ItemType "directory"


    Directory: C:\


Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name
----                -------------     ------ ----
d----          4/9/2012  11:45 AM            testfolder

As with all cmdlets I mention on the blog posts I do recommend that you look at full help of the command and look at the members of the objects returned as covered in the initial blogposts.

Now lets create a file, for this we will use the ItemType of "file" to indicate we want a file.

PS C:\> New-Item -Path .\testfolder -Name testfile -ItemType "file"


    Directory: C:\testfolder


Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name
----                -------------     ------ ----
-a---          4/9/2012  11:53 AM          0 testfile

 

Working with Items

Now that we have a file we can work with lets look at the properties and methods available with the Get-Item cmdlet:

PS C:\> Get-Item -Path .\testfolder\testfile | Get-Member


   TypeName: System.IO.FileInfo

Name                      MemberType     Definition
----                      ----------     ----------
Mode                      CodeProperty   System.String Mode{get=Mode;}
AppendText                Method         System.IO.StreamWriter AppendText()
CopyTo                    Method         System.IO.FileInfo CopyTo(string destFileName), System.IO.FileInfo CopyTo(s...
Create                    Method         System.IO.FileStream Create()
CreateObjRef              Method         System.Runtime.Remoting.ObjRef CreateObjRef(type requestedType)
CreateText                Method         System.IO.StreamWriter CreateText()
Decrypt                   Method         System.Void Decrypt()
Delete                    Method         System.Void Delete()
Encrypt                   Method         System.Void Encrypt()
Equals                    Method         bool Equals(System.Object obj)
GetAccessControl          Method         System.Security.AccessControl.FileSecurity GetAccessControl(), System.Secur...
GetHashCode               Method         int GetHashCode()
GetLifetimeService        Method         System.Object GetLifetimeService()
GetObjectData             Method         System.Void GetObjectData(System.Runtime.Serialization.SerializationInfo in...
GetType                   Method         type GetType()
InitializeLifetimeService Method         System.Object InitializeLifetimeService()
MoveTo                    Method         System.Void MoveTo(string destFileName)
Open                      Method         System.IO.FileStream Open(System.IO.FileMode mode), System.IO.FileStream Op...
OpenRead                  Method         System.IO.FileStream OpenRead()
OpenText                  Method         System.IO.StreamReader OpenText()
OpenWrite                 Method         System.IO.FileStream OpenWrite()
Refresh                   Method         System.Void Refresh()
Replace                   Method         System.IO.FileInfo Replace(string destinationFileName, string destinationBa...
SetAccessControl          Method         System.Void SetAccessControl(System.Security.AccessControl.FileSecurity fil...
ToString                  Method         string ToString()
PSChildName               NoteProperty   System.String PSChildName=testfile
PSDrive                   NoteProperty   System.Management.Automation.PSDriveInfo PSDrive=C
PSIsContainer             NoteProperty   System.Boolean PSIsContainer=False
PSParentPath              NoteProperty   System.String PSParentPath=Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\FileSystem::C:\testfolder
PSPath                    NoteProperty   System.String PSPath=Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\FileSystem::C:\testfolder\te...
PSProvider                NoteProperty   System.Management.Automation.ProviderInfo PSProvider=Microsoft.PowerShell.C...
Attributes                Property       System.IO.FileAttributes Attributes {get;set;}
CreationTime              Property       System.DateTime CreationTime {get;set;}
CreationTimeUtc           Property       System.DateTime CreationTimeUtc {get;set;}
Directory                 Property       System.IO.DirectoryInfo Directory {get;}
DirectoryName             Property       System.String DirectoryName {get;}
Exists                    Property       System.Boolean Exists {get;}
Extension                 Property       System.String Extension {get;}
FullName                  Property       System.String FullName {get;}
IsReadOnly                Property       System.Boolean IsReadOnly {get;set;}
LastAccessTime            Property       System.DateTime LastAccessTime {get;set;}
LastAccessTimeUtc         Property       System.DateTime LastAccessTimeUtc {get;set;}
LastWriteTime             Property       System.DateTime LastWriteTime {get;set;}
LastWriteTimeUtc          Property       System.DateTime LastWriteTimeUtc {get;set;}
Length                    Property       System.Int64 Length {get;}
Name                      Property       System.String Name {get;}
BaseName                  ScriptProperty System.Object BaseName {get=if ($this.Extension.Length -gt 0){$this.Name.Re...
VersionInfo               ScriptProperty System.Object VersionInfo {get=[System.Diagnostics.FileVersionInfo]::GetVer...

For getting properties for the file object we have several ways to achive this first one is using the Get-ItemProperty cmdlet by given as the name the object property:

PS C:\> Get-ItemProperty -Path .\testfolder\testfile -Name LastAccessTime

PSPath         : Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\FileSystem::C:\testfolder\testfile
PSParentPath   : Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\FileSystem::C:\testfolder
PSChildName    : testfile
PSDrive        : C
PSProvider     : Microsoft.PowerShell.Core\FileSystem
LastAccessTime : 4/9/2012 11:53:25 AM

Another Method we can use is to get the object and just request it, lets look at some properties that security professionals will find quite interesting:

PS C:\> (Get-Item -Path .\testfolder\testfile).LastWriteTime

Monday, April 09, 2012 11:53:25 AM


PS C:\> (Get-Item -Path .\testfolder\testfile).LastAccessTime

Monday, April 09, 2012 11:53:25 AM


PS C:\> (Get-Item -Path C:\Windows\System32\aaclient.dll).VersionInfo

ProductVersion   FileVersion      FileName
--------------   -----------      --------
6.1.7600.16385   6.1.7600.1638... C:\Windows\System32\aaclient.dll

Just like other shell we can redirect output of commands as text to files using > and >> symbols:

  • cmdlet > filename – Redirect command output to a file and overwrite content.
  • cmdlet >> filename – append into a file
  • cmdlet 2> filename – Redirect Errors from operation to a file and overwrite content.
  • cmdlet 2>> filename – Append errors to a file
  • cmdlet 2>&1 – Add errors to output
  • cmdlet 1>&2 – Add output to errors

Lets look also at the Add-Content cmdlet:

PS C:\> Add-Content -Path C:\testfolder\testfile -Value (get-date)
PS C:\> Get-Content -Path C:\testfolder\testfile
4/9/2012 3:39:29 PM

Lets work with the object method to modify the file, in this case we will use EFS to encrypt the file on NTFS, lets start with checking if the file is encrypted:

PS C:\> (Get-Item -Path .\testfolder\testfile).attributes
Archive

Now lets encrypt the file and see if its encrypted:

PS C:\> (Get-Item -Path .\testfolder\testfile).encrypt()
PS C:\> (Get-Item -Path .\testfolder\testfile).attributes
Archive, Encrypted

We can even confirm using the cipher.exe command:

PS C:\> cipher.exe /c .\testfolder\testfile

 Listing C:\testfolder\
 New files added to this directory will not be encrypted.

E testfile
  Compatibility Level:
    Windows XP/Server 2003

  Users who can decrypt:
    infidel01\Carlos [Carlos(Carlos@infidel01)]
    Certificate thumbprint: 45F5 3D35 94B0 3C47 B727 AB63 0198 F19A 2793 1283

  No recovery certificate found.

  Key Information:
    Algorithm: AES
    Key Length: 256
    Key Entropy: 256

Lets Rename an item with the Rename-Item cmdlet:

PS C:\> Rename-Item -Path C:\testfolder -NewName test_folder
PS C:\> ls


    Directory: C:\


Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name
----                -------------     ------ ----
d----         7/13/2009  11:20 PM            PerfLogs
d-r--          4/5/2012  10:27 PM            Program Files
d-r--          4/8/2012   6:39 PM            Program Files (x86)
d----          4/5/2012   7:42 PM            Python27
d----          4/5/2012   7:41 PM            Python32
d----          4/5/2012   7:38 PM            Ruby193
d----          4/6/2012  12:27 PM            SysinternalsSuite
d----          4/9/2012   4:44 PM            test_folder
d-r--          4/5/2012  10:54 PM            Users
d----          4/8/2012  11:14 AM            Windows
-a---          4/5/2012  10:32 PM       1024 .rnd


Lets delete the file we have been using for the examples:

PS C:\> Remove-Item -Path C:\test_folder\testfil
PS C:\> ls .\test_folder


    Directory: C:\test_folder


Mode                LastWriteTime     Length Name
----                -------------     ------ ----
-a---          4/9/2012   3:39 PM         21 testfile


PS C:\>  Remove-Item -Path C:\test_folder\testfile
PS C:\> ls .\test_folder

Working with Paths

Lets look at working with paths, we will firs start with defining the difference of Path and LiteralPath in the parameters of several commands. This is a source of confusion for many people learning PowerShell on their own by exploring the shell cmdlets. When working with a file system on a drive or share Powershell Windows restricts the characters that can be used for a file name, like *, ?, /, $ and others since they are use for variable expansion and wildcard search but since PowerShell lets us work with Active Directory, Certificate Store, Registry and others that do not have the same restrictions as the file system. This is why we use -Path when we want the special characters treated as wildcards and -LiteralPath for those cases where those special characters are part of the item names. An example of expansion:

PS C:\> Set-Location -Path Perf*
PS C:\PerfLogs>

We can see as wildcards where used to match the path. To get the current location of where we are in a provider we use the Get-Location cmdlet:

PS C:\PerfLogs> Get-Location

Path
----
C:\PerfLogs

To Change locations we use the Set-Location cmdlet:

PS C:\PerfLogs> Set-Location C:\testfolder
PS C:\testfolder> Get-Location

Path
----
C:\testfolder

We can take a path and add a child item to the path with Join-Path cmdlet:

PS C:\> Join-Path -Path C:\Windows -ChildPath system
C:\Windows\system

We can also have it join a path using wildcards:

PS C:\> Join-Path -Path C:\Win* -ChildPath tem* -Resolve
C:\Windows\Temp

We can also give it a list of path to append a child object to:

PS C:\> join-path -path c:\windows,c:\python,c:\ruby  -ChildPath temp
c:\windows\temp
c:\python\temp
c:\ruby\temp

Some time we will find our self with path that we obtained from a property of an object and we may need to extract parts of the path, for this we will use the Split-Path cmdlet and we can get different pats of the paths depending of what we want:

PS C:\> split-path c:\windows\secret.txt
c:\windows
PS C:\> split-path c:\windows\secret.txt -Qualifier
c:
PS C:\> split-path c:\windows\secret.txt -NoQualifier
\windows\secret.txt
PS C:\> split-path c:\windows\secret.txt -Parent
c:\windows
PS C:\> split-path c:\windows\secret.txt -Leaf
secret.txt

It also supports extracting parts from other types of paths:

PS C:\> Split-Path -Path /var/log/tftp.log -Leaf
tftp.log
PS C:\> Split-Path -Path /var/log/tftp.log -Parent
\var\log
PS C:\> split-path -Path http://www.darkoperator.com/index.html -Qualifier
http:
PS C:\> split-path -Path http://www.darkoperator.com/index.html -NoQualifier
//www.darkoperator.com/index.html

We can test if a path exists:

PS C:\> test-path -path HKLM:\Software\Microsoft\PowerShell\1\ShellIds\Microsoft.PowerShell
True
PS C:\> test-path -path C:\Windows
True
PS C:\> test-path -path C:\Windows\system32\aaclient.dll
True

As we can see this works with both files, folders and even other paths in other providers. Lets say we want to test is the path is for a File or a Folder, for this we will use Container for Folder and Leaf for File:

PS C:\> test-path -path C:\Windows\system32\aaclient.dll -PathType leaf
True
PS C:\> test-path -path C:\Windows\system32\aaclient.dll -PathType container
False

Conclusion

I invite you to keep exploring in the registry, variables and other psdrives available and learning what is possible and not and the differences in the parameters we can use with this providers. As always I hope this blog post is useful and informative.

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